It is important to set the stage for discussion and present the agreement as part of the informed consent process. The following steps can serve as guidance: fortunately, a paradigm shift has taken place and PDOs are essentially developing towards an extension of informed consent and more towards an agreement shared by the prescribing doctor and the patient. Informed consent involves informing the patient about the risks and benefits of the proposed therapy and the legal obligations that such therapy imposes on both the doctor and the patient. Informed consent is intended for several purposes: (1) it informs the patient of the risks and benefits of opioid therapy; 2. encourage compliance with the treatment plan; (3) it limits the potential for unintentional drug abuse; and (4) improves the effectiveness of the treatment program. (SAMHSA, 2016a) The use of a patient-clinician agreement or treatment agreement helps to strengthen patient information. . . .